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Netflix is a leader in the entertainment industry. Since 2007, the company has been considered an Internet TV provider and has more than 93 million users in approximately 190 countries (United States Securities and Exchange Commission [SEC], 2017). Its segments include domestic and international streaming and internal DVD. Netflix has a lot of content, including original video and a strong subscriber base (SEC, 2017). This industry is highly competitive and in order to have a competitive advantage, the company has been constantly trying to increase the quantity and quality of delivered content. Nevertheless, many factors can negatively affect the activity of Netflix. It is advisable to conduct an analysis of the company using Porter's five forces in order to determine competition, understand what impact it may have on the business, and assess the profitability potential of the industry.

The degree of competition facing Netflix is high. Since this industry is characterized by fierce competition, each supplier struggles for more quantity and customer loyalty. Netflix has the largest players as its rivals, namely Amazon, Wal-Mart, Hulu, Red Box, and others. Most of these companies are constantly increasing their content offering a wide range of online videos. Some of them have more experience, greater client base, brand strength, and powerful financial resources that allow them taking more aggressive price strategies and providing better conditions for consumers (SEC, 2017). In addition, Netflix faces the threat of competition from such a player as Popcorn Time, which uses illegal means to provide free video viewing on the Internet that is readily available to customers (Idland, Overby, & Audestad, 2015). Therefore, Netflix operates in a very competitive environment, which can affect its work adversely.

Despite the fact that new participants can enter the market, the degree of such an opportunity is low, because it will include a large cost of providing a necessary variety of choice and the quality of content. Moreover, there are marketing and promotional activities needed in order to promote the company properly. In addition, new players will be adversely affected by greater competition and the image of major players in the industry.

The power of suppliers in the industry is average. It is because Netflix uses a complex client-server delivery model that includes the purchase of content (Idland et al., 2015). The company has long-term and fixed obligations to various studios and content providers (SEC, 2017). Such terms of cooperation are not very profitable for Netflix since they are of long-term nature and not subject to changes in case of dissatisfaction with company's expectations. Therefore, depending on the situation, the flexibility of the business may be limited, which as a result will affect its revenues.

The strength of Netflix customers is high. Despite the fact that the company has a strong subscriber base and confident positions in the market, yet buyers have a lot of power given multiple competitors. They are offered many different streams, among which they can choose a more convenient or affordable service. It is often associated with a price policy, and there are many cases when consumers subscribe to several suppliers (SEC, 2017). Therefore, buyers reserve the choice of the content provider, which in turn can harm Netflix and lead to the fact that the company will have to reduce prices more.

The threat of substitutes in the industry is high. Since the streaming media industry has frequent volatility and includes numerous different products and suppliers, consumers are inclined to change needs and demand lower prices. However, even with a moderate pricing policy of Netflix, a significant threat to the company may come from pirated video delivery services, which currently have the potential to capture a large market share through free access to content while viewing advertising.

Summarizing, the analysis of the Netflix industry shows that the company has a high degree of competition. However, in turn, this is one of the reasons for a low threat from the entry of new participants. Nevertheless, Netflix may undergo some influence from suppliers, threat of substitute products, and the power of buyers. Accordingly, it turns out that the profit potential of the industry in which Netflix operates is small, and despite its success now, in the future, many factors can have a negative impact on the company.


Idland, E., Overby, H., & Audestad, A.J. (2015). Economic markets for video streaming services: A case study of Netflix and Popcorn Time. Retrieved from

United States Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017, January 27). 10-K (NETFLIX INC). Retrieved from

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Conrad Hilton is one of the famous leader in the hospitality industry. He was the first to realize that millionaires and middle-income people alike need the same comfort and unobtrusive but ubiquitous service, and for the same reason, they are ready to stay in the same hotels. The main thing that brought success to the Hilton Hotels was the innovations in the field of service and marketing. Hilton was an innovator, and it played a significant role in the formation of his empire. Hilton Hotels are very popular around the world since their founder was an expressive leader with extraordinary hotel business skills.

Biographical Data

Conrad Hilton has founded an international line of business hotels that bears his name. He was born in 1887 in New Mexico and studied at the Mining Institute (O'Gorman 131). He became an engineer, but this did not attract him at all. Since childhood, Conrad Hilton dreamed of becoming a bank manager. Therefore, his first business was banking. Surviving the bankruptcy of his first enterprise, Conrad dreamed of creating a new, successful bank. However, staying at the local hotel Mobley, he was struck by the mass of people crowding in the lobby who fought for free rooms; thus, he decided to take up the hotel business. He bought this hotel in 1919, and in 1925, he founded the first hotel in Dallas, which was named Hilton (Fojas 32). Hilton Hotels have grown throughout the country. Therefore, he became one of the richest hotelier in the world.

Leadership Characteristics that Led Me to Select Conrad Hilton

Leadership characteristics of Conrad Hilton have inspired me a lot. He was a perfect leader, as he appreciated the customers the most. Thus, he never ignored any requirement of the clients. On the contrary, all purchases in hotels were made in advance based on the analysis of customers' demands. In addition, he was first to introduce the loyalty system for returning clients. Thus, he earned the nickname "enthusiastic dealmaker" for his insatiable energy in exploring competitors (Fojas 40). Going to buy a hotel, he personally studied the situation. For example, Hilton watched how many men and women smiled when they leave the hotel, what was the size of the lobby, and even how many light bulbs were lit before entering as well as how many of them were burned out. By his style, he was a transformational leader, as he had the ability to make significant changes. Typically, Hilton introduced changes in the concept of the future development of his empire, its strategy, culture, production, and applied technologies. Instead of analyzing and controlling specific transactions with subordinates, using rules, directives and incentives, he focused on intangible issues, such as perspectives, common values, and new ideas. Therefore, this ability inspired those around him.

Hilton's Philosophy

Conrad Hilton considered that something that was good for clients was good for him. He believed that his hotels must be special such as diamonds (O'Gorman 133). He valued all his customers with great respect and wanted them to feel special in his hotels, both rich and middle-income. He also believed that world peace could contribute to international travel. Therefore, he supported international labor while creating the Hilton Hotels.

Conrad Hilton and His Hotel Business Innovations

Success of the Hilton empire is determined by the hotel business abilities of its leader. Thus, Hilton brand offers guarantee of elite luxury with affordable service of high standard quality that has become the company's corporate motto (Fojas 54). It attracts a variety of customers to the hotels, starting from crowned women, business leaders, stars of culture, to simple middle-class couples. As American journalists wrote, Conrad Hilton was the first to understand that people needed real comfort and unobtrusive but ubiquitous service regardless of their social status; thus, all of them are ready to stay for this in the same hotels (O'Gorman 139). However, the main thing that brought success to this hotel chain was innovations in the field of service and marketing. The corporation was the first to install specialized kiosks for souvenirs and gifts.

Moreover, Hilton was the innovator in equipment with such conventional devices as air conditioning, direct dial telephone, multifunctional programmable alarms, and automatic entrance doors. In 1994, this company has become the first hotel chain in the world that had all rooms equipped with automatic opening, closing, and locking doors (Fojas 67). In addition, Hilton's company is the first in its business sector to implement and widely distribute the franchising system since 1965, and today, it has franchising contracts with 1,352 hotels (Fojas 69). Nevertheless, the main innovations took place after Hilton's death, when the world entered the electronic era. Following the precepts of the founding father, his followers were the first to take all the newly opened profitable niches, as the work on the electrification of Hilton Hotels and related infrastructure began long before the appearance of the now well-known concepts, namely e-business and IT-technologies.


Hilton brand remains one of the most popular around the world due to their founder who was an expressive leader with extraordinary hotel business skills. Conrad Hilton has created his hotel empire due to his extraordinary personal abilities. Thus, he was a perfect transformational leader who paid his most attention to innovations in order to make his hotels comfortable for visitors. His personal philosophy inspired people around him. Moreover, his desire to become a hotelier was developed since he understood that people needed to feel comfortable away from their home regardless of their income and status.

Works Cited

Fojas, Camilla. Islands of Empire: Pop Culture and U.S. Power. University of Texas Press, 2014.

O'Gorman, Kevin. Conrad Hilton: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and the Making of the Global Hotel Industry. Goodfellow Publishers, 2013.

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Knowledge is a range of skills, facts, description, and information obtained through empirical observation or education. It refers both to theoretical and practical realization of a subject and, therefore, it can be explicit or implicit respectively. In philosophical terms, knowledge is identified with epistemology, or with a justified true belief. In order to obtain knowledge, such cognitive processes as communication, perception, association, and reasoning are used. With regard to the presented terms, scientific knowledge can be considered as an inquiry approach must be premised on gathering measurable and observable evidence that refers to principles of experimentation and reasoning. According to Barnes (2013), scientific knowledge could be regarded as a handful of facts gathering during investigating knowledge and removing all possible biases. Unlike other forms of knowledge, scientist cannot be absolute confident in the facts they have gathered and conclusions they have made. Therefore, there is always a level of uncertainty and skepticism about scientific knowledge.

Prior to understanding the relationship between scientific knowledge and other forms of science, it is purposeful to provide an explanation for the link between science and philosophy. When it comes to the latter, the question concerns the means and essence of inquiry. In the philosophical context, "science is a way of knowing that requires strong philosophical underpinning" (Wenning, 2009, p. 3). Therefore, it is impossible to assume the nature of knowledge without understanding of philosophical frameworks. Moreover, there should be a clear distinction between knowledge and faith because the latter can distort the chain of justified beliefs. Therefore, in order to build justified concepts and beliefs, there should be a fundamental ground of knowledge. Although some of the assumptions could not be denied, such as the fact that the Earth rotates around the Sun, but ancient history proves that these assumptions could be mistaken. Specifically, it had long been considered that the Earth had the form of plateau that stands on three pillars. Therefore, this fact has been concluded on the basis on other justified beliefs whose reliability is not always verified. The very possibility to trust this assumption lies in the acceptance of knowledge by the majority of philosophers and scientists. Therefore, in case a person knows something, rather than believes in something, this person must provide the facts and evidence that support a specific claim. If there is no evidence provided, it could be considered to be a faith or a hypothesis. However, the latter has the right to the existence in the world of science because they allow theorist to continue their quest for the evidence.

Aside from the method of inquiry, the emphasis should be placed on the nature of knowledge supporting a certain scientific assumption. As it has been previously recognized, knowledge is a justified true belief, but there is still a range of biases and inconsistencies could be considered in more detail. For instance, if a certain issue is true, it is believed to be true and this concept is justified. However, it is possible to consider a belief that if the weather is cloudy, it is likely to rain. Therefore, individuals believe in the possibility of rain, when the weather is cloudy, and people are justified in believing that when the weather is cloudy, it is likely to rain. The statement can be true, but in a certain context because all the conditions given are too specific and there might be other alternatives for making the outcomes. In particular, inferential process premised on experience could advocate the claims, unless a presumption is made about the natural laws, which are constant and can be employed across space and time.

There are also many other forms of knowledge, such as common knowledge, empirical knowledge, and observation knowledge. Knowledge could also be considered from the perspective of disciplines it covers. In particular, if knowledge is represented in humanitarian disciplines, experiments are not always relevant for accelerating facts and information. If knowledge is introduced is developed in physics or chemistry, the choice of methods of inquiry should be confined to experiments and testing. In addition, Agrawal (2008) divides knowledge into indigenous and scientific, where the former type focuses on a priori knowledge and the latter introduces a set of proven evidence. What is more important is that indigenous knowledge is represented with a level of probability and, therefore, it does not require induced statements. In contrast to scientific knowledge, there is already a set of facts that were previously been concluded from the existing knowledge. Although the initial knowledge is a justified true belief, it is impossible to know for certain that this knowledge is verified.

In sociological inquiry, no epistemology dominates in a commonly recognized account of knowledge. According to Hall (1990), "if we knew that world to have some coherence of objects, events, and processes in its actuality, that is, independently of our knowledge about it, we would at least knowledge, we would at least know whether our task was to gain valid knowledge about what exists" (p. 331). In this respect, the epistemological framework focuses on the concept of ontology that expands understanding of the social world. Certainly, the difference between ontology and epistemology is evident in case solution is not found. At the same time, the distinction points to the complexity of the issue. More importantly, epistemology embraces a wider context for discussion. In the light of empiricism and positivism, Hall (1990) focuses on an alternative discussion of scientific knowledge. In this respect, scientific knowledge, which is often presented as objective knowledge, is impossible to conceive because all logical deductions made are premised on people's personal attitude to scientific discoveries. Rather, scientific knowledge refers to a set of relative beliefs based on existing facts and evidence. In this respect, numerous philosophers believe that it is impossible to testify relations and develop a set of beliefs about a specific object, which are based on untested assumption. In terms of validity and reliability, it is impossible to state scientific knowledge is a justified true belief because the majority of statements rely on hypothetical knowledge.

With regard to the above-presented biased and ambiguities, it can be argued that scientific knowledge relies partially on other types of knowledge, such as partial knowledge, situated knowledge, or observational knowledge. This reliance, however, does not allow theorists to conclude that this knowledge is worth considering in further investigation endeavors. For instance, scientific knowledge, as a combination of testing and observable evidence, can base their assumptions and concepts on situated knowledge. In this respect, Haraway (2003) provides an alternative outlook on how knowledge could be constructed. By highlighting feminist inquire and the concept of objectivity, the author acknowledges the presence of situated and partial knowledge. While making reference to the type of knowledge, Haraway (2003) admits, "no insider's perspective is privileged, because all drawings of inside-outside boundaries in knowledge are theorized a power moves, not moves toward truth" (p. 22). Thus, from a social constructionist viewpoint, scientific knowledge is mistakenly presented as an objective stance. False assumptions about objectivity can distort the overall conception of knowledge. With regard to the above presented debates, the problem of objectivity is the most serious one because it fails to explain the main essence of scientific inquiry. The feminist discourse revealed by Haraway (2003) allows the theorist to understand how thematic discussion and feminist objectivity are associated with situated knowledge and limited location, but not with dismantling between object and subject.

It should be acknowledged that there are several ways of making inquiries, but not all of them could be regarded as scientific. For instance, it is impossible to rely on deductions on the set of situated beliefs that depend largely on context rather than on an objective matter of facts. However, scientific knowledge cannot be induced because of the impossibility to connect "engineering" and reasoning. At the same time, there should be a specific connection between action and knowledge because it is essential to overcome the difficulty in building an appropriate decision on other attributes of inductive inference.

Aside from scientific inference, there is a challenge of justifying induction. Giere (2012) assumes that inductive logic focuses on general or singular statements stemmed from isolated statements. However, such a method of inquiry does not highlight the link between conclusions and premises. In order to avoid skepticism, it is necessary to resort to non-deductive methods of scientific inference and accept the importance of epistemology in shaping the conclusions. The scientific knowledge often refers to a complicated process of making inquiries and gathering information about an external world. Additionally, Giere (2012) makes a conclusion about statistical knowledge regarding the importance of experimental systems. The researcher notes that singular observations shape the inductive ground for statistical hypotheses that in turn create an inductive ground for developing theories. Although any statistical information may derive from separate inductive statement, it is insufficient for shaping scientific knowledge.

When it comes to scientific knowledge, there should be a distinction between the truth and knowledge. Since science is identified with knowledge, then scientific development is the synthesis of scientific knowledge. At the same time, the philosophical perspective explains why general hypothesis could not be considered to be the foundation of scientific knowledge. It is also impossible to believe that the accumulation of scientific belief is enough for promoting scientific progress because the latter can lack justification. In this respect, Bird (2010) concludes, "only knowledge, which does not have the right justifying connection to the truth, typically through reliable reasoning and good evidence, suffices for scientific progress" (pp. 3-4). The main two factors - reliable reasoning and sufficient evidence - should also be taken into consideration. In this respect, scientific knowledge has a direct relation to empirical and observation knowledge that should be combined in a way to persuade the theorist in the validity of findings.

In conclusion, although scientific knowledge relies on other types of knowledge, its methods of inquiry differ significantly from those accepted in epistemology, ontology, and inductive logic. Specifically, although scientific knowledge can be premised on a single statement deduced from general knowledge, this information cannot be considered valid and reliable because of the absence of contextual background. Unlike scientific knowledge that premises on philosophy and epistemology, many other assumptions are justified on the basis of true beliefs. From a rationalist viewpoint, scientific knowledge could be obtained once the understanding of justified true belief is presented. For instance, knowledge is true if one believes in it and is justified in believing in it. Not all the statements can go through this scheme successfully and, therefore, most of the assumptions made are not valid. Additionally, scientific knowledge could be achieved as soon as objectivity and accuracy are considered. Finally, due to the fact that science implies the analysis of hypothesis for making assumption, most of the theories could be based on unjustified beliefs. However, the importance of hypothetic testing is essential for expanding scientific knowledge. It also provides an underpinning for building facts and discovering evidence.


Agrawal, A. (2008). Dismantling the divide between indigenous and scientific knowledge. Development and change. 26(3), 413-439.

Barnes, B. (2013). Scientific knowledge and sociological theory. London: Routledge.

Bird, A. (2010). The epistemology of science - a bird's-eye view. Synthese. 1-12. Retrieved from

Giere, R. N. (2012). The epistemological roots of scientific knowledge. In G. Maxwell., and R. M. Anderson. (Eds.). Induction, Probability and Confirmation. (pp. 212-261), Minnesota: University of Minnesota press.

Hall, J. R. (1990). Epistemology and sociohistorical inquiry. Annual Review of Sociology. 16, 329-351.

Haraway, D. (2003). Situated knowledge: The science questions in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. In Y. S. Lincoln & N. K. Denzin (Eds.), Turning points in qualitative research: Tying knots in a handkerchief. (pp. 21-47). Lanham, MR: Rowman Altamira.

Wenning, C. J. (2009). Scientific epistemology: How scientists know what they know. Illinois State University Physics. 3-15.

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1. a) Body image is the way in which people perceive their physical appearance and attractiveness. In an era where the media plays a near-monopolistic role in determining the kind of information that people receive either as news or entertainment, media portrayal of the ideal body image has a big influence on people's perceptions of beauty. Perhaps, as a result of media stereotyping, adolescents strive to avoid putting on weight, since big bodies are associated with negative images/ugliness and obesity. One negative impact of this media-based perception of beauty is the adoption of unhealthy eating habits that eventually develop eating disorders such as under-eating /consuming less than is sufficient to meet the body's physiological needs. It disrupts the body's normal metabolism, leading to a psychological disorder - anorexia.

b) Anorexia is "a fear for fatness and a craving for thinness" (Sheppird, 2010, p. 67). Symptoms include fluctuating body weight, being over-conscious about gaining weight, observing weight loss behaviors, and following a restrictive diet. Treatment therapies include counseling to change one's attitude about being fat and adopting healthy eating habits.

c) Society pressurizes the youth by glorifying slim and tall bodies as the embodiments of beauty. Even in the corporate world, the popularity of fashion models like Kate Moss and Angelina Jolie promotes the ideology of slim-body beauty. On the other hand, having a big body is perceived as a shortcoming in terms of physical appeal. Consequently, it influences eating habits among the youth in their efforts to either lose or avoid gaining weight. This is especially the case among female youths and teenagers who are more conscious about their body image than men or older people.

2. a) Reading and listening fosters language by allowing learners to practice their language skills. Reading helps learn how to pronounce words correctly and improve the articulation abilities.

Listening helps learners improve their conversational skills by exposing them to practical situations of language usage. They learn how to follow conversations/stories, choose the main ideas, and commit them to memory.

b) My favorite book for fostering language skills is You Can't Say "You Can't Play", by Vivian Gussin Paley. It is a children's book that is filled with fairy tales. Fantasies play a key role in the development of cognitive skills among children. They hook children's attention and activate their imaginations. In addition, fantasies are the means through which children learn about and understand the world around them. For example, animal stories teach children about honesty (such as a hare caught and punished for lying), good friendship, and obedience. The book's fairy tales provide material that children can relate with easily. Thus, children can improve their language skills by reading the stories or listening to the teacher as he/she narrate them.

3. Kohlberg's six stages of moral development are:

· Level I: Pre-conventional morality.

Stage one: obedience and punishment orientation: children believe that there are fixed sets of rules that they must obey, otherwise they will be punished. An example is the conviction that "stealing is bad" because it leads to punishment.

Stage two: individualism and exchange: at this stage, children realize that what the authority says is not what everyone follows. They learn that "right" is relative depending on the situation, for example, stealing food due to the feeling of hunger.

· Level II: Conventional morality.

Stage three: good interpersonal relationships: at this stage (early teenage-hood), child learns that morality is not just about breaking laws but also about conforming to family and societal

expectations as well. These expectations include respecting older people, honesty, trustworthiness, and caring for others (e.g. friendship).

Stage four: maintaining the social order: children expand their circles of relationships from family members and close friends to encompassing society at large. Children become aware that they are responsible to society and not just their friends and families (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2009). An example is helping people whom one has never met before, because that is how a good society should function. I remember one incidence, when I was about ten, my mother asked me to help an old lady with her luggage because we were going the same way. I responded that I did not know her and why I had to help the old lady. She responded that one should help anyone if one is in a position to, regardless of whether one knows them or not.

· Level III: Post-conventional Morality.

Stage five: social contract and individual rights: individuals reach a stage when they begin to look at morality and their responsibilities critically. They debate about what makes a functional society, their rights, and responsibilities of others. For example, one learns that he is his neighbor's keeper, but that the neighbor should also be a responsible citizen.

Stage six: universal principles: at this stage, individuals become concerned about justice for all. They become worried about the rights of minorities and the need to strike a balance between the needs of all parties by being impartial and objective in making judgments. For example, a thief may be spared by asking, "Why did he still? Was it because of an unfair system that denies him the opportunity to meet his needs through legitimate means?"


Shepphird, S. F. (2010). 100 Questions and answers about anorexia nervosa. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2009). Understanding human behavior and the social

environment. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

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